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The historical evolution of solid rockets

The solid rocket was invented by the Chinese at the beginning of the 13th century. The first military use of missiles is said to have taken place in 1232 during the siege of a city in China. They also became known in Europe in the 13th century through the Arabs. However, they were not only used for military purposes. In the 17th century, smaller versions served as firecrackers.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the British artillery officer William Congreve developed one named him a solid rocket that had a range of about 2000 meters. This guy contained a sheet metal cylinder in which a three kilogram load of explosive material was carried. The stick used to stabilize the flight was four meters long and the total weight was around 14 kilograms.

In the decades that followed, rocket brigades were deployed in some armies. Most of these brigades were disbanded around 1870. In the aftermath, the missiles only remained in the areas of distress (signaling missiles) and whaling significant.

Interest in rockets increased again towards the end of the 19th century. The focus was doing theoretical and experimental rocket research. Some scientists, such as of the
Russian physicist Konstantin Eduardowitsch Ziolkowskij, proposed rockets as To use spacecraft.

In World War I, rockets were primarily used for signaling.
After the Second World War, solid fuel engines were developed for different applications. Mostly they served for military purposes, e.g. as launch engines for guided missiles. The main components of a solid rocket are the payload and the engine, the latter also including the combustion chamber. The solid or pasty fuel is in the combustion chamber. Some models are equipped with wings to stabilize the flight.

Today's solids loads are very large. For example, The starting weight of a Trident-II D5 is around 59 t. A starter unit of the space shuttle Spaceshuttle alone weighs more than 500 t.

Modern solid fuel components include certain plastics (e.g. polyurethanes) that act as binders and at the same time as fuel. These are mixed with the oxidizer, e.g. Ammonium perchlorate, mixed. Powdered metals (e.g. aluminum) are added to the binder and oxidizer in order to increase performance and reduce burn-off.

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